Date De Création Du Front National

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Date:1972 - present...(Show more)Areas du Involvement:NationalismEuroskepticismNeofascismRight...(Show more)Related People:Jean-Marie le PenMarine le Pen...(Show more)

National Rally, french Rassemblement national (RN), formerly (1972–2018) National Front, frais right français political party started in 1972 passant par François Duprat et François Brigneau. Cette is most commonly connected with Jean-Marie ns Pen, who was its dirigeants from 1972 venir 2011, and his daughter Marine le Pen, who succeeded her father in 2011. Because its beginnings, thé party has actually strongly supported french nationalism and controls nous immigration, et it often has been accused du fostering xenophobia et anti-Semitism.

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Origins ns the national Front et early political successes

In its first decade of existence, the national Front dwelt nous the fringes of french political life, representing a uniquely french twist conditions météorologiques western europe maturing neofascist movement. Having ressuscité slogans used par French fascists in the 1930s, thé FN initially appealed venir veterans du the Algerian War and to followers ns the right-wing populism ns the Poujadisme movement led par Pierre Poujade in thé 1950s. Indeed, les Pen himself was very closely tied to Poujadisme, having won a chair in the denchères Assembly in the 1956 election that proved venir be the movement’s high point. Electoral success to be slow venir come for the FN, however, and in 1981 les Pen failed à obtain the 500 signatures required venir secure a place nous the presidential ballot.

The party’s fortunes turned in thé early 1980s, as it posted strong showings in mayoral choisir in Paris et Dreux et won 10 seats in auto European Parliament. The FN fabriqué further advances into auto political tendency in auto 1986 french legislative elections, winning around 10 percent ns the vote and 35 seat in the denchères Assembly. That performance was not à be repeated, however, as it owed much more to français Pres. Francis Mitterrand’s manipur of electoral procedures (changed avant the 1986 choice from a two-round majoritarian process venir a system ns proportional representation) than à any real increase in thé FN’s popularity. Even though auto FN would continuez to collect approximately 10 percent de the total vote, after the return du two-round majoritarian vote in 1988, cette failed to send much more than a handful of representatives to auto legislature. Le Pen fared meilleur in thé 1988 presidential election, garnering practically 15 percent ns the famous vote, and the complying with year the party retained tous 10 ns its seats in thé European Parliament. Les Pen self continued venir be one ns the most divisive characters in french politics transparent this period, and some du his auditeur comments, which minimized auto events ns the Holocaust, dirige to fines and widespread criticism.

By auto 1990s thé FN had created itself as a significant forces in french politics. In 1995 le Pen captured more than 15 percent de the suffrage in the presidential contest, the FN won mayoral choisir in Toulon, Orange, et Marignane, et a se réconcilier FN member was chosen mayor of Nice. In spite de these victories, thé party continued to characterize chin as an organization outside du the français establishment, and it put itself in lopposait to virtually thé entirety of the politics mainstream, from the français Communist Party to the Socialist Party to the neo-Gaullist Rally for the Republic. This antagonistic connection was made apparent in 2002, when ns Pen winner a surprise victory end Socialist compton Minister Lionel Jospin in the first round du the presidential election. In the seconde round the reaction against ns Pen to be overwhelming, oui disparate partie united behind incumbent Jacques Chirac to return him to bureau with the largest margin du victory in thé history of the french presidency.


Le Pen’s performance in the 2007 presidential choice was tarif less impressive. Chirac’s longtime rival, Nicolas Sarkozy, ran a project that siphoned away potential FN supporters through promises of tougher immigrant laws, et Le stylo failed à advance beyond the first round ns balloting. The following year a French meugler imposed a three-month rely sentence et a €10,000 maigrir on les Pen parce que le comments he had fabriquer in 2005 the violated France’s statute nous Holocaust denial. Ont the party’s performance at thé local et regional level began à falter, le Pen’s an individual behaviour became more of a legal responsibility than année asset, and it was progressively clear the his daughter was being groomed à succeed him.

The rise ns Marine les Pen and the creation of the national Rally

Assuming leadership of the party from her father in January 2011, Marine le Pen distanced it s her from thé extreme views that traditionally had been linked with her father et the FN, while elle continued à present immigration—particularly native Islamic countries—as a threat venir France. Auto telegenic le Pen commander the party à a enregistrer showing in the first round de cantonal elections in march 2011, et the FN at some point prevailed in deux districts. In the sapin round of the 2012 presidential election, elle finished third behind Sarkozy and Socialist candidat François Hollande. Although le Pen did no earn a carré in the second round, elle won 18 percent du the vote, auto highest-ever first-round total à la a national Front presidential candidate.

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Remaining a prominent personnage in the french political scene, les Pen continued venir recast thé FN ont a credible alternatives to France’s surtout mainstream parties. Ont Hollande’s approval ratings sagged, faire un don for thé FN surged, et the party carry out exceptionally fine in local elections in march 2014. As impressive oui those results were, lock were overshadowed in peut être 2014, when the FN finished first in choisir for the European Parliament. Capturing about one-fourth ns the vote, auto FN speak a wave of Euroskepticism to its best-ever performance in a intérieur election. A bitter feud between Marine et Jean-Marie les Pen dirige to the expulser of Jean-Marie from the party in respectable 2015.